范例

目录

Basic FFI usage

Before diving into the details of the FFI API, lets take a look at a few examples demonstrating the simplicity of the FFI API usage for regular tasks.

Note:

Some of these examples require libc.so.6 and as such will not work on systems where it is not available.

示例 #1 Calling a function from shared library

<?php
// create FFI object, loading libc and exporting function printf()
$ffi = FFI::cdef(
    "int printf(const char *format, ...);", // this is a regular C declaration
    "libc.so.6");
// call C's printf()
$ffi->printf("Hello %s!\n", "world");
?>

以上例程会输出:

Hello world!

示例 #2 Calling a function, returning a structure through an argument

<?php
// create gettimeofday() binding
$ffi = FFI::cdef("
    typedef unsigned int time_t;
    typedef unsigned int suseconds_t;
 
    struct timeval {
        time_t      tv_sec;
        suseconds_t tv_usec;
    };
 
    struct timezone {
        int tz_minuteswest;
        int tz_dsttime;
    };
 
    int gettimeofday(struct timeval *tv, struct timezone *tz);    
", "libc.so.6");
// create C data structures
$tv = $ffi->new("struct timeval");
$tz = $ffi->new("struct timezone");
// call C's gettimeofday()
var_dump($ffi->gettimeofday(FFI::addr($tv), FFI::addr($tz)));
// access field of C data structure
var_dump($tv->tv_sec);
// print the whole C data structure
var_dump($tz);
?>

以上例程的输出类似于:

int(0)
int(1555946835)
object(FFI\CData:struct timezone)#3 (2) {
  ["tz_minuteswest"]=>
  int(0)
  ["tz_dsttime"]=>
  int(0)
}

示例 #3 Accessing existing C variables

<?php
// create FFI object, loading libc and exporting errno variable
$ffi = FFI::cdef(
    "int errno;", // this is a regular C declaration
    "libc.so.6");
// print C's errno
var_dump($ffi->errno);
?>

以上例程会输出:

int(0)

示例 #4 Creating and Modifying C variables

<?php
// create a new C int variable
$x = FFI::new("int");
var_dump($x->cdata);

// simple assignment
$x->cdata = 5;
var_dump($x->cdata);

// compound assignment
$x->cdata += 2;
var_dump($x->cdata);
?>

以上例程会输出:

int(0)
int(5)
int(7)

示例 #5 Working with C arrays

<?php
// create C data structure
$a = FFI::new("long[1024]");
// work with it like with a regular PHP array
for ($i = 0; $i < count($a); $i++) {
    $a[$i] = $i;
}
var_dump($a[25]);
$sum = 0;
foreach ($a as $n) {
    $sum += $n;
}
var_dump($sum);
var_dump(count($a));
var_dump(FFI::sizeof($a));
?>

以上例程会输出:

int(25)
int(523776)
int(1024)
int(8192)

PHP Callbacks

It is possible to assign a PHP closure to a native variable of function pointer type or to pass it as a function argument:

<?php
$zend = FFI::cdef("
    typedef int (*zend_write_func_t)(const char *str, size_t str_length);
    extern zend_write_func_t zend_write;
");
 
echo "Hello World 1!\n";
 
$orig_zend_write = clone $zend->zend_write;
$zend->zend_write = function($str, $len) {
    global $orig_zend_write;
    $orig_zend_write("{\n\t", 3);
    $ret = $orig_zend_write($str, $len);
    $orig_zend_write("}\n", 2);
    return $ret;
};
echo "Hello World 2!\n";
$zend->zend_write = $orig_zend_write;
echo "Hello World 3!\n";
?>

以上例程会输出:

Hello World 1!
{
        Hello World 2!
}
Hello World 3!

Although this works, this functionality is not supported on all libffi platforms, is not efficient and leaks resources by the end of request.

小贴士

It is therefore recommended to minimize the usage of PHP callbacks.

A Complete PHP/FFI/preloading Example

php.ini

ffi.enable=preload
opcache.preload=preload.php

preload.php

<?php
FFI::load(__DIR__ . "/dummy.h");
opcache_compile_file(__DIR__ . "/dummy.php");
?>

dummy.h

#define FFI_SCOPE "DUMMY"
#define FFI_LIB "libc.so.6"
 
int printf(const char *format, ...);

dummy.php

<?php
final class Dummy {
    private static $ffi = null;
    function __construct() {
        if (is_null(self::$ffi)) {
            self::$ffi = FFI::scope("DUMMY");
        }
    }
    function printf($format, ...$args) {
       return (int)self::$ffi->printf($format, ...$args);
    }
}
?>

test.php

<?php
$d = new Dummy();
$d->printf("Hello %s!\n", "world");
?>