可变函数

PHP 支持可变函数的概念。这意味着如果一个变量名后有圆括号,PHP 将寻找与变量的值同名的函数,并且尝试执行它。可变函数可以用来实现包括回调函数,函数表在内的一些用途。

可变函数不能用于例如 echoprintunsetissetemptyincluderequire 以及类似的语言结构。需要使用自己的包装函数来将这些结构用作可变函数。

示例 #1 可变函数示例

<?php
function foo() {
    echo "In foo()<br />\n";
}

function bar($arg = '') {
    echo "In bar(); argument was '$arg'.<br />\n";
}

// 使用 echo 的包装函数
function echoit($string)
{
    echo $string;
}

$func = 'foo';
$func();        // This calls foo()

$func = 'bar';
$func('test');  // This calls bar()

$func = 'echoit';
$func('test');  // This calls echoit()
?>

也可以用可变函数的语法来调用一个对象的方法。

示例 #2 可变方法范例

<?php
class Foo
{
    function Variable()
    {
        $name = 'Bar';
        $this->$name(); // This calls the Bar() method
    }

    function Bar()
    {
        echo "This is Bar";
    }
}

$foo = new Foo();
$funcname = "Variable";
$foo->$funcname();   // This calls $foo->Variable()

?>

当调用静态方法时,函数调用要比静态属性优先:

示例 #3 Variable 方法和静态属性示例

<?php
class Foo
{
    static $variable = 'static property';
    static function Variable()
    {
        echo 'Method Variable called';
    }
}

echo Foo::$variable; // This prints 'static property'. It does need a $variable in this scope.
$variable = "Variable";
Foo::$variable();  // This calls $foo->Variable() reading $variable in this scope.

?>

As of PHP 5.4.0, you can call any callable stored in a variable.

示例 #4 Complex callables

<?php
class Foo
{
    static function bar()
    {
        echo "bar\n";
    }
    function baz()
    {
        echo "baz\n";
    }
}

$func = array("Foo", "bar");
$func(); // prints "bar"
$func = array(new Foo, "baz");
$func(); // prints "baz"
$func = "Foo::bar";
$func(); // prints "bar" as of PHP 7.0.0; prior, it raised a fatal error
?>

参见 is_callablecall_user_func可变变量function_exists

更新日志

版本说明
7.0.0'ClassName::methodName' is allowed as variable function.
5.4.0Arrays, which are valid callables, are allowed as variable functions.