位运算符

位运算符允许对整型数中指定的位进行求值和操作。

例子名称结果
$a & $bAnd(按位与)将把 $a$b 中都为 1 的位设为 1。
**`$a$b`**Or(按位或)
$a ^ $bXor(按位异或)将把 $a$b 中一个为 1 另一个为 0 的位设为 1。
~ $aNot(按位取反)$a 中为 0 的位设为 1,反之亦然。
$a << $bShift left(左移)$a 中的位向左移动 $b 次(每一次移动都表示“乘以 2”)。
$a >> $bShift right(右移)$a 中的位向右移动 $b 次(每一次移动都表示“除以 2”)。

位移在 PHP 中是数学运算。向任何方向移出去的位都被丢弃。左移时右侧以零填充,符号位被移走意味着正负号不被保留。右移时左侧以符号位填充,意味着正负号被保留。

要用括号确保想要的优先级。例如 $a & $b == true 先进行比较再进行按位与;而 ($a & $b) == true 则先进行按位与再进行比较。

If both operands for the &, | and ^ operators are strings, then the operation will be performed on the ASCII values of the characters that make up the strings and the result will be a string. In all other cases, both operands will be converted to integers and the result will be an integer.

If the operand for the ~ operator is a string, the operation will be performed on the ASCII values of the characters that make up the string and the result will be a string, otherwise the operand and the result will be treated as integers.

Both operands and the result for the << and >> operators are always treated as integers.

PHP 的 ini 设定 error_reporting 使用了按位的值,
提供了关闭某个位的真实例子。要显示除了提示级别
之外的所有错误,php.ini 中是这样用的:
E_ALL & ~E_NOTICE
      
具体运作方式是先取得 E_ALL 的值:
00000000000000000111011111111111
再取得 E_NOTICE 的值:
00000000000000000000000000001000
然后通过 ~ 将其取反:
11111111111111111111111111110111
最后再用按位与 AND(&)得到两个值中都设定了(为 1)的位:
00000000000000000111011111110111
      
另外一个方法是用按位异或 XOR(^)来取得只在
其中一个值中设定了的位:
E_ALL ^ E_NOTICE
      
error_reporting 也可用来演示怎样置位。只显示错误和可恢复
错误的方法是:
E_ERROR | E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR
      
也就是将 E_ERROR
00000000000000000000000000000001
和 E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR
00000000000000000001000000000000
用按位或 OR(|)运算符来取得在任何一个值中被置位的结果:
00000000000000000001000000000001
      

示例 #1 整数的 AND,OR 和 XOR 位运算符

<?php
/*
 * Ignore the top section,
 * it is just formatting to make output clearer.
 */

$format = '(%1$2d = %1$04b) = (%2$2d = %2$04b)'
        . ' %3$s (%4$2d = %4$04b)' . "\n";

echo <<<EOH
 ---------     ---------  -- ---------
 result        value      op test
 ---------     ---------  -- ---------
EOH;


/*
 * Here are the examples.
 */

$values = array(0, 1, 2, 4, 8);
$test = 1 + 4;

echo "\n Bitwise AND \n";
foreach ($values as $value) {
    $result = $value & $test;
    printf($format, $result, $value, '&', $test);
}

echo "\n Bitwise Inclusive OR \n";
foreach ($values as $value) {
    $result = $value | $test;
    printf($format, $result, $value, '|', $test);
}

echo "\n Bitwise Exclusive OR (XOR) \n";
foreach ($values as $value) {
    $result = $value ^ $test;
    printf($format, $result, $value, '^', $test);
}
?>

以上例程会输出:

 ---------     ---------  -- ---------
 result        value      op test
 ---------     ---------  -- ---------
 Bitwise AND
( 0 = 0000) = ( 0 = 0000) & ( 5 = 0101)
( 1 = 0001) = ( 1 = 0001) & ( 5 = 0101)
( 0 = 0000) = ( 2 = 0010) & ( 5 = 0101)
( 4 = 0100) = ( 4 = 0100) & ( 5 = 0101)
( 0 = 0000) = ( 8 = 1000) & ( 5 = 0101)

 Bitwise Inclusive OR
( 5 = 0101) = ( 0 = 0000) | ( 5 = 0101)
( 5 = 0101) = ( 1 = 0001) | ( 5 = 0101)
( 7 = 0111) = ( 2 = 0010) | ( 5 = 0101)
( 5 = 0101) = ( 4 = 0100) | ( 5 = 0101)
(13 = 1101) = ( 8 = 1000) | ( 5 = 0101)

 Bitwise Exclusive OR (XOR)
( 5 = 0101) = ( 0 = 0000) ^ ( 5 = 0101)
( 4 = 0100) = ( 1 = 0001) ^ ( 5 = 0101)
( 7 = 0111) = ( 2 = 0010) ^ ( 5 = 0101)
( 1 = 0001) = ( 4 = 0100) ^ ( 5 = 0101)
(13 = 1101) = ( 8 = 1000) ^ ( 5 = 0101)

示例 #2 字符串的 XOR 运算符

<?php
echo 12 ^ 9; // Outputs '5'

echo "12" ^ "9"; // Outputs the Backspace character (ascii 8)
                 // ('1' (ascii 49)) ^ ('9' (ascii 57)) = #8

echo "hallo" ^ "hello"; // Outputs the ascii values #0 #4 #0 #0 #0
                        // 'a' ^ 'e' = #4

echo 2 ^ "3"; // Outputs 1
              // 2 ^ ((int)"3") == 1

echo "2" ^ 3; // Outputs 1
              // ((int)"2") ^ 3 == 1
?>

示例 #3 整数的位移

<?php
/*
 * Here are the examples.
 */

echo "\n--- BIT SHIFT RIGHT ON POSITIVE INTEGERS ---\n";

$val = 4;
$places = 1;
$res = $val >> $places;
p($res, $val, '>>', $places, 'copy of sign bit shifted into left side');

$val = 4;
$places = 2;
$res = $val >> $places;
p($res, $val, '>>', $places);

$val = 4;
$places = 3;
$res = $val >> $places;
p($res, $val, '>>', $places, 'bits shift out right side');

$val = 4;
$places = 4;
$res = $val >> $places;
p($res, $val, '>>', $places, 'same result as above; can not shift beyond 0');


echo "\n--- BIT SHIFT RIGHT ON NEGATIVE INTEGERS ---\n";

$val = -4;
$places = 1;
$res = $val >> $places;
p($res, $val, '>>', $places, 'copy of sign bit shifted into left side');

$val = -4;
$places = 2;
$res = $val >> $places;
p($res, $val, '>>', $places, 'bits shift out right side');

$val = -4;
$places = 3;
$res = $val >> $places;
p($res, $val, '>>', $places, 'same result as above; can not shift beyond -1');


echo "\n--- BIT SHIFT LEFT ON POSITIVE INTEGERS ---\n";

$val = 4;
$places = 1;
$res = $val << $places;
p($res, $val, '<<', $places, 'zeros fill in right side');

$val = 4;
$places = (PHP_INT_SIZE * 8) - 4;
$res = $val << $places;
p($res, $val, '<<', $places);

$val = 4;
$places = (PHP_INT_SIZE * 8) - 3;
$res = $val << $places;
p($res, $val, '<<', $places, 'sign bits get shifted out');

$val = 4;
$places = (PHP_INT_SIZE * 8) - 2;
$res = $val << $places;
p($res, $val, '<<', $places, 'bits shift out left side');


echo "\n--- BIT SHIFT LEFT ON NEGATIVE INTEGERS ---\n";

$val = -4;
$places = 1;
$res = $val << $places;
p($res, $val, '<<', $places, 'zeros fill in right side');

$val = -4;
$places = (PHP_INT_SIZE * 8) - 3;
$res = $val << $places;
p($res, $val, '<<', $places);

$val = -4;
$places = (PHP_INT_SIZE * 8) - 2;
$res = $val << $places;
p($res, $val, '<<', $places, 'bits shift out left side, including sign bit');


/*
 * Ignore this bottom section,
 * it is just formatting to make output clearer.
 */

function p($res, $val, $op, $places, $note = '') {
    $format = '%0' . (PHP_INT_SIZE * 8) . "b\n";

    printf("Expression: %d = %d %s %d\n", $res, $val, $op, $places);

    echo " Decimal:\n";
    printf("  val=%d\n", $val);
    printf("  res=%d\n", $res);

    echo " Binary:\n";
    printf('  val=' . $format, $val);
    printf('  res=' . $format, $res);

    if ($note) {
        echo " NOTE: $note\n";
    }

    echo "\n";
}
?>

以上例程在 32 位机器上的输出:

--- BIT SHIFT RIGHT ON POSITIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: 2 = 4 >> 1
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=2
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=00000000000000000000000000000010
 NOTE: copy of sign bit shifted into left side

Expression: 1 = 4 >> 2
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=1
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=00000000000000000000000000000001

Expression: 0 = 4 >> 3
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=00000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: bits shift out right side

Expression: 0 = 4 >> 4
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=00000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: same result as above; can not shift beyond 0


--- BIT SHIFT RIGHT ON NEGATIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: -2 = -4 >> 1
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-2
 Binary:
  val=11111111111111111111111111111100
  res=11111111111111111111111111111110
 NOTE: copy of sign bit shifted into left side

Expression: -1 = -4 >> 2
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-1
 Binary:
  val=11111111111111111111111111111100
  res=11111111111111111111111111111111
 NOTE: bits shift out right side

Expression: -1 = -4 >> 3
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-1
 Binary:
  val=11111111111111111111111111111100
  res=11111111111111111111111111111111
 NOTE: same result as above; can not shift beyond -1


--- BIT SHIFT LEFT ON POSITIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: 8 = 4 << 1
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=8
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=00000000000000000000000000001000
 NOTE: zeros fill in right side

Expression: 1073741824 = 4 << 28
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=1073741824
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=01000000000000000000000000000000

Expression: -2147483648 = 4 << 29
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=-2147483648
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=10000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: sign bits get shifted out

Expression: 0 = 4 << 30
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=00000000000000000000000000000100
  res=00000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: bits shift out left side


--- BIT SHIFT LEFT ON NEGATIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: -8 = -4 << 1
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-8
 Binary:
  val=11111111111111111111111111111100
  res=11111111111111111111111111111000
 NOTE: zeros fill in right side

Expression: -2147483648 = -4 << 29
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-2147483648
 Binary:
  val=11111111111111111111111111111100
  res=10000000000000000000000000000000

Expression: 0 = -4 << 30
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=11111111111111111111111111111100
  res=00000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: bits shift out left side, including sign bit

以上例程在 64 位机器上的输出:

--- BIT SHIFT RIGHT ON POSITIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: 2 = 4 >> 1
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=2
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010
 NOTE: copy of sign bit shifted into left side

Expression: 1 = 4 >> 2
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=1
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001

Expression: 0 = 4 >> 3
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: bits shift out right side

Expression: 0 = 4 >> 4
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: same result as above; can not shift beyond 0


--- BIT SHIFT RIGHT ON NEGATIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: -2 = -4 >> 1
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-2
 Binary:
  val=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111100
  res=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110
 NOTE: copy of sign bit shifted into left side

Expression: -1 = -4 >> 2
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-1
 Binary:
  val=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111100
  res=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
 NOTE: bits shift out right side

Expression: -1 = -4 >> 3
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-1
 Binary:
  val=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111100
  res=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
 NOTE: same result as above; can not shift beyond -1


--- BIT SHIFT LEFT ON POSITIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: 8 = 4 << 1
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=8
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001000
 NOTE: zeros fill in right side

Expression: 4611686018427387904 = 4 << 60
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=4611686018427387904
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=0100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Expression: -9223372036854775808 = 4 << 61
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=-9223372036854775808
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: sign bits get shifted out

Expression: 0 = 4 << 62
 Decimal:
  val=4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000100
  res=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: bits shift out left side


--- BIT SHIFT LEFT ON NEGATIVE INTEGERS ---
Expression: -8 = -4 << 1
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-8
 Binary:
  val=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111100
  res=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111000
 NOTE: zeros fill in right side

Expression: -9223372036854775808 = -4 << 61
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=-9223372036854775808
 Binary:
  val=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111100
  res=1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Expression: 0 = -4 << 62
 Decimal:
  val=-4
  res=0
 Binary:
  val=1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111100
  res=0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
 NOTE: bits shift out left side, including sign bit

Warning

Prior to PHP 7.0, shifting integers by values greater than or equal to the system long integer width, or by negative numbers, results in undefined behavior. In other words, if you're using PHP 5.x, don't shift more than 31 bits on a 32-bit system, and don't shift more than 63 bits on 64-bit system.

使用 gmp 扩展对超出 PHP_INT_MAX 的数值来进行位操作。

参见 pack, unpack, gmp_and, gmp_or, gmp_xor, gmp_testbit, gmp_clrbit